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Statistics, Transport within the USSR, the branch of economic statistics that studies the transportation system, including various types of general-purpose transport rail, sea, river, motor vehicle, air, and pipeline and nongeneral-use transport rail sidings, ships, and motor vehicles operated by industrial enterprises.

Within the USSR the main sources of data for transport statistics are comprehensive current records, periodic reports submitted by transportation enterprises that are in line with the records, and special statistical surveys, both comprehensive and limited, for instance, the annual census of rolling stock and the surveys from the speed of delivery of freight. Transport statistics is subdivided into statistics on shipments, operations, fixed capital and equipment, labor, material and technical supply, and finances.

Statistics on shipments studies the transport output, or movement of freight and passengers. Freight shipments are described by the following indexes: quantity of outgoing, incoming, and transported cargo tons, freight turnover ton-km, average shipment distance km, average density of shipments tons, average length days and speed km/days of freight delivery, and the interregional for rail transport also interrailroad exchange and transportation balance of the nation regions for various kinds of freight. With certain exceptions, similar indexes are determined for passenger conveyance. These indexes are uniform for the whole transportation system. The aggregate calculated output for those types of transportation, excluding air transport, is dependent upon adding the freight turnover towards the passenger turnover.

Statistics on transport operations deals with the entire number of available vehicles as well as their operation and employ. The work volume of rolling stock is expressed in terms of the operating freight turnover ton-km, net and gross and the distance of hauls. By comparing the amount indexes and time expenditures of rolling stock, indexes from the utilization of vehicles are determined: the average daily productivity of the unit of shipping equipment standard two-axle railroad car, locomotive, lot of load capacity, or horsepower, the typical daily run, and the average technical and sectional commercial speed of vehicles. Moreover, certain kinds of transportation have their own indexes. Railroad indexes include the proportion of empty runs by railroad cars, the average turnaround some time and indexes for that loading of freight cars, and the average weight and composition of the train. For river transport, eddie bauer parka will find such indexes as the net productivity of the river vessel for time of travel with a load and also the average turn-around time for any barge per trip.

Transport statistics studies the material and technical base of transportation using physical and price expressions for fixed capital in order to assess the use of production fixed assets in transportation, to study the proportionality of growth and development of various aspects of the transportation system, and to show the correlation between eddie bauer parka degree of the technical base of transportation and national economic development. Records from the quantity, specification, and operation of apparatus along with a uniform classification of fixed capital within the national economy are especially important for solving these complaints. The leading indexes are the period of routes and the inventory fleets of vehicles.

Labor statistics in transportation studies the amount, composition, and movement of the labor force; the use of work time and labor productivity; and also the wages fund and average wages. Furthermore, the labor expenditures of workers directly involved with shipping are measured, and also the labor productivity of operations personnel is evaluated.

Indexes from the absolute and particular use of energy resources in shipping are specifically important for statistics on material and technical supply because fuel and electrical energy are the primary kinds of material expenditures in transportation.

Financial statistics deals with revenues, expenditures, the earning power and prime cost of shipping, and the overall profitability of numerous kinds of transportation. Revenues are generally recorded at the moment and put theyre received. The only real exception to this is railroad transportation, where the revenues of individual railroads from direct shipment are based on calculation when processing information on shipments. Bookkeeping data are used to analyze expenditures and profit.

In the current phase of building the material and technical basis for communism, transport statistics faces the duties of investigating the patterns and proportions in the growth and development of the transportation system like a sector of fabric production, establishing the extent to which the shipping needs of the national economy and population are being met, and creating a uniform system of transport statistics.

The business of transport statistics in the other socialist countries is perfect for probably the most part just like that in the USSR. Problems of methodology in computing the indexes of these statistics have been discussed at numerous meetings of statisticians sponsored by COMECON Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the UN during the 1960 and 1970 the capitalist countries transport statistics deals chiefly with shipments, the length of routes, and the revenues of various kinds of transport.

REFERENCESIstorcheskii ocherk razvitiia uchrezhdenii i rabot vedomstva putei soobshcheniia po statistike i karte putei soobshcheniia v 1798 gg. St. V. Zheleznodorozhnaia statistika, 2nd ed. P. Transportnaia statistika, 2nd ed. sb. Moscow, 1972.